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Medical Terminology Endocrine System

Updated: Aug 10, 2022

adren/o, adrenal/o adrenal gland, epinephrine adrenocortic/o adrenal cortex endocrin/o endocrine glands or system hypophys/o pituitary gland; hypophysis insul/o pancreatic islets parathyr/o, parathyroid/o parathyroid gland pituitar/o pituitary gland; hypophysis thyr/o, thyroid/o thyroid gland aden/o gland Corti- cortex crin/o to secrete gluc/o, glucos/o, glyc/o glucose, sugar oophor/o, ovari/o ovary orchid/o, orch/o testicles, testis, testes pancreat/o pancreas thym/o thymus gland thyroid/o thyroid gland Endocrinology/ Endocrinologist Diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the endocrine glands and hormones. Person who treats conditions related to the endocrine system. crine endocrine secretion Adrenal glands small glands that located on the upper portion of each kidney. adrenal glands are endocrine glands that secrete such hormones as catecholamines, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and corticosteroids. Glands are where hormones are produced and secreted into the bloodstream Aldosterone Hormone that stimulates the kidney to retain sodium ions and water Antidiuretic hormone hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland to prevent the kidneys from expelling too much water Antidiuretic an agent that decreases urine production Catecholamines hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response. Corticosteroids any hormones synthesized by the drain or cortex except androgen Cortisol cortisol is the most abundant and potent glucocorticoid. it is necessary to maintain life. one major function of cortisol is the regulation of blood glucose concentration. Endocrine system consist of a series of organs and glands throughout the body that produce, store, and secrete special chemical messengers. Glucagon is synthesized and released from pancreatic alpha cells and response to low levels of blood glucose, protein ingestion, and exercise. Growth Hormone (GH) affects the growth and development of skeletal muscle and long bones, affecting a person's size and height. Homeostasis means having a consistent internal environment in the body. Hormones are chemical substances synthesized and secreted by specific organ or tissue. Insulin is produced by better sales and is the principal regulator of metabolism. insulin facilitates glucose transport across cell membranes and most tissues. Islets of langerhans areas of pancreatic cells that produce insulin and glucagon Negative feedback is when a gland responds to a stimulus by increasing or decreasing the secretion of a hormone based on feedback from different factors. Ovaries produce and store eggs and females. also, the ovaries produce estrogen. Pancreas is an accessory organ of the digestive system it produces and secretes digestive enzymes that help to break down starches, fats, and proteins and also, produces hormones that regulate blood sugar. Parathyroid glands they are small and oval-shaped that regulate the blood level of calcium. there are usually four glands. Pineal gland is located near the center of the brain. it is composed of cells that secrete melatonin. Pituitary gland is a small gland about the size of a grape which acts only under the control of the hypothalamus. it is very important in the control of other endocrine glands. Target organs is the organ that the hormone has its effect on. Testes produce in store sperm in males. The testes also produce testosterone. Thyroid gland is located in front of the trachea. it is a highly vascular organ and controls metabolic processes throughout the body. Tropic hormone hormone that stimulates the secretion of another hormone Serum cortisol measures the amount of total cortisol in the blood and evaluates the function of the adrenal cortex. Serum aldosterone levels are drawn to evaluate for hyperaldosteronism Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stim test this test measures the plasma levels of ACTH.this test can help determine if there is an underproduction or overproduction of cortisol and if it is caused by dysfunction of the adrenal gland or pituitary gland. Serum adrenal corticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation with cosyntropin this test is used to evaluate adrenal function. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) suppression The ACTH suppression assesses for excessive adrenal function. it is it is especially helpful if hyperactivity is expected. it is also useful in the valuation of Cushing's syndrome. Urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) this test measures the urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites. it is helpful in diagnosing pheochromocytoma. Computed tomography (CT) is a technique that uses radiography to produce an image of the cross section of tissue. it is used to detect tumors and the size of the tumor mass of the adrenal gland. Fasting blood glucose level measure circulating glucose levels Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) this is a 2-hour test used to diagnose diabetes mellitus. Capillary glucose monitoring is used to give immediate glucose values with a drop of blood from a finger stick. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) measures the degree of glucose control during a previous 3-month period. Urine glucose estimates the amount of glucose in the urine by using an enzymatic method Urine ketones measures the amount of acetone extracted in the urine as a result of incomplete fat metabolism. Computed tomography (CT) technique that uses radiography to produce an image of the cross section of tissue. it is used to identify tumors or cysts of the pancreas. Growth Hormone (GH) a serum growth hormone test evaluate the secretion of growth hormone. this test can identify deficiencies or excess of the growth hormone. Somatostatin C serum test that provides a reflection of the plasma concentration of the growth hormone. Growth hormone stimulation test provides an adequate diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. The substances of insulin or arginine are used as a stimulant. Gonadotropin levels provides information about any problems with the donuts related to a pituitary insufficiency. Prolactin levels provides an evaluation of prolactin levels Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a procedure used to produce an image by the creation of a magnetic field to give detailed information about the pituitary gland in the hypothalamus. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) this test measures the serum levels of thyroid simulating hormone. it is used to evaluate for thyroid disease. Thyroxine (T4) this test measures total serum level of t4. it is used to assess thyroid function and for monitoring when a patient is receiving thyroid therapy. Triiodothyronine (TS) test measures for serum levels of t3. it is useful in diagnosing hypothyroidism. Free T4 serum-free t4 test is used to measure the active component of the total t4. this is one of the better tests used for the evaluation of thyroid function. Ultrasound radiological test that measures for thyroid nodules. Radioactive iodine uptake the uptake of radioactive iodine, given by mouth, measured as evidence of thyroid function Thyroid scan used to measure the nodules of the thyroid Parathyroid hormone (PTH) measure serum levels of parathyroid hormone. Total serum calcium test measures total serum calcium to help detect bone and parathyroid disorders. Ionized calcium The serum anas calcium measures the freeform of calcium circulating in the bloodstream. Serum Phosphate this test measures for inorganic phosphorus. it is used to check for hypoparathyroidism by looking for hypophosphatemia. Acromegaly is characterized by an overgrowth of the bones and soft tissue. Acro- extremities Cushing syndrome is a metabolic disorder characterized by an abnormal increased secretion of adrenal cortical steroids due to an increase secretion of ACTH. this results in excess fat in the upper back, chest, abdomen, and face. Diabetes insipidus is associated with a deficiency of production or secretion of ITI diuretic hormone or decreased renal response to the antidiuretic hormone. Diabetic ketoacidosis is acidosis with an accumulation of ketones in the body. diabetic ketoacidosis is a profound efficiency of insulin and is marked by hyper glycemia, ketosis, acidosis and dehydration. Diabetes mellitus chronic disease related to abnormal insulin production, impaired insulin utilization, or a combination of both. Diabetic nephropathy is damaged to the small blood vessels that supply the glomeruli of the kidney. Diabetic neuropathy his nerve damage normally associated with diabetes mellitus. Exophthalmos is a classic finding in Grave's disease. it is a protrusion of the eyeballs from the orbits. Goiter a goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by excess secretion of the thyroid stimulating hormone. Graves disease is autoimmune disease of excessive thyroid hormone secretion. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a chronic autoimmune disease in which thyroid tissue is replaced by lymphocytes and fibers tissue. Hyperparathyroidism is a condition involving an increased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hyperthyroidism is an increased activity of the thyroid gland and a constant increase in synthesis and release of thyroid hormones. Hypoparathyroidism is due to an inadequate amount of circulating parathyroid hormone. Hypopituitarism involves a decrease in one or more of the pituitary hormones. Hypothyroidism results from insufficient circulating thyroid hormone. Myxedema is a severe form of hypothyroidism due to an accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the dermis of the tissue. it is characterized by swelling of the face, hand, feet, and periorbital tissue.. Myx- mucus Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal medulla that produces excessive catecholamines which result in severe hypertension. other signs include flushing, headaches, sweating, and hyperglycemia. Pheo- dusky Chromo- color Somogyi effect is a rebound effect in which an overdose of insulin induces hypoglycemia. Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SAIDH) is marked by increased urination which occurs when the antidiuretic hormone is released despite normal or low plasma osmolarity. Thyroiditis is an inflammatory process in the thyroid Thyrotoxicosis physiological effect of hypermetabolism that results from excess circulating levels of t4, t3, or both. Thyrotoxic crisis also known as a thyroid storm. it is an acute condition in which all hyperthyroid manifestations are heightened.

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